current Ladino Language area can be divided into three broad sub-areas
corresponding to particular families Ladin, but these are not always
uniform within them, there are other sub-families and a number of
differences between different dialects belonging to each of these
Romansh is spoken in the most western Ladin, is spoken in Switzerland in the canton of Grisons in western and central and upper and lower Engadine Valley and also in Münstertal.
Is spoken in the valleys of the Non and Sole (Trentino) - however, the Nones and the Val di Sole are not unanimously recognized as dialects-Ladin - valleys of Fassa (Trento), Gardena and Badia (South Tyrol) and in some villages of Castelrotto (South Tyrol), the common Livinallongo del Col Di Lana, and Colle Santa Lucia e Rocca Pietore (Belluno) tyrolean-ladin; in Cadore, Comelico and Cortina d'Ampezzo cadorin-ladin; in Val di Zoldo and in Agordino (Belluno) refers a Ladino-Venetian dialect, which gradually becomes more like the northern-Venetian in the valleys to the south and the more archaic Ladino Language in the northern valleys. Ladin-Venetian dialect Zoldano is interesting because in it has characteristics of idioms tyrolean-Ladin, Agordino and Cadore.
Ladino Language is the group most easterly and has its own characteristics not found in other spoken. Is certain that the Friulano, spoken in lowland areas, belongs to the Ladin language.
Ladino Language is spoken in the Veneto only in the upper part of the province of Belluno: Territories Ladin ex- Habsburg (Livinallongo Del Col Di Lana, Colle Santa Lucia e Cortina d’Ampezzo); apart from some municipalities in the province of Venice, where people speak the Friulian (Portogruaro Zone, municipalities of: Concordia Sagittaria, San Michele al Tagliamento, Fossalta di Portogruaro, Gruaro, Cinto Caomaggiore, Pramaggiore).
In the territory of Cadore Ladino some varieties must be distinguished:Ampezzano, spoken in the town of Cortina D'Ampezzo (Ladin: Anpezo), particularly conservative (i.e. the Interdental consonants has not been used as in the rest of Cadore), because of a longer period of Austrian rule, which did not allow a strong Venetian influence. However, the Ladino Language has unexpected archaic phenomena where dialect has been changed and innovative where it is more archaic. For example in Cortina they use the less conservative word “caal” (horse) instead of more conservative “ciaval” used in the rest of Cadore.
Oltrechiusano, spoken in the municipality of San Vito di Cadore (lad.: San Vido), Borca di Cadore (lad.: Borcia), Vodo di Cadore (lad.: Guodo) and Cibiana di Cadore (lad.: Zubiana), also very conservative, even if slightly less than Ampezzano, especially in the municipalities of Cibiana and San Vito and in the small village of Vinigo (lad.: Vinego) in the municipality of Vodo.
The Central Cadore is spoken in the municipalities of Valle di Cadore (lad.:Val), Pieve di Cadore (lad.: Piee), Perarolo di Cadore (lad.: Perarol/Peraruò), Calalzo di Cadore (lad.: Cialauz) and Domegge di Cadore (lad.:Domeie/Domiege). The central Cadore is not homogeneous throughout its area. Precisely the town of Valle has lost much of its Latin culture, the more retained in the country of Venas. Even less Ladino shows the village of Perarolo and in Pieve, although the latter does not occur in the same situation throughout the municipal area.
In fact, if the Ladino Language in the countries of Pieve, Sottocastello (lad.: Sotecastel) and Tai (lad.: Tai/Tei) Ladin is almost unrecognizable, is already more evident in the village of Nebbiù to become very evident to Pozzale (lad.: Pozale). In particular the village of Pozzale has the language most archaic of all the Central Cadore, strange phenomenon when you consider that there is only two kilometers above the town of Pieve, where the traces of Ladin are minimal. The speech of Pozzale presents olrechiusano and archaic traits: for example the words daos (back) and pistorte (potatoes) similar to the word pestorte used in Cortina. The language becomes again strongly Ladino in the town of Calalzo and even more conservative in the village of Rizzios (lad.: Rezuos) and even more throughout the municipal area of Domegge.
The eastern Cadore Ladino Language is a series of dialects with traits different from each other, but with similar features: for example the ending of past participles in OU and IU: zerciòu (sampled), dormiù (slept). It’s spoken in the municipalities of Lozzo di Cadore (lad.: Loze), Vigo di Cadore (lad.: Vigo), Lorenzago di Cadore (lad.: Lorenzago) and Auronzo di Cadore (lad.: Auronzo/Auronze). It is a decidedly more conservative dialect than the central and with some different characteristics, such as the past participle of which was said above. There is an odd linguistic jump between Lozzo and Domegge being only a few kilometers between them. Among these dialects the Lozzese is the most particular because of some own linguistic solutions: for example denogio (knee) instead of denocio/denoio/denuoio and vuou (egg) instead of uòvo/goo. The dialects of Laggio (lad.: Laio), town of Vigo, and Auronzo are very conservative. In Auronzo very archaic words are found absent in other Oriental Cadore languages, i.e. sartio (sun) like in Comelico.
The Cadore dialect of Comelico is the most conservative, for many even more than the Ampezzano. It could be confused with a Cadore dialect having its own traits sometimes similar to Friulano. Linguists actually do it belong to the dialects of Cadore, although in the group it has its own role. It is spoken in all the municipalities of Comelico (lad.: Comelgo/Comelgu), but in Sappada about of which we’ll tell later. The Comelico dialect could be divided into two sections: 1) eastern Comelico: towns of Costalissoio (lad.: Costliseign), Campolongo (lad.: Cianpolongo), San Pietro (lad.: San Piero), Mare (lad.: Mar), Presenzio (lad.: Parnei) e Cosalta (lad.: Costata); 2) Westwrn Comelico: towns of Candide (lad.: Candide), Casamazzagno (lad.: Sciamazeign), Dosoledo (lad.: Dudlè), San Nicolò (lad.: San Colò), Cosat (lad.: Costa), Parola (lad.: Padla), Danta (lad.: Danta), Santo Stefano (lad.: Sa Stefi), Campitello (lad.: Ciampedel), Casta (lad.: Ciasada). The town of Ospitale di Cadore, who is the most southerly of all the Cadore, can be considered as belonging to the northern Venetian dialects than to the Ladin ones. In the town of Zoppè, belongin in history to Cadore, but in the valley of Zoldo, is used a Ladin-Venetian-Zoldo dialect. In the municipality of Selva di Cadore (lad.: Selva) belongs to Cadore, but in Val Fiorentina, Agordo, they use a Ladin-Agordo dialect with few worlds of Venetian. In it there are some characteristics of the Tyrolean-Ladin from the nearer town of Colle Santa Lucia, Livinallongo del Col di Lana e Rocca Pietore and Cadore archaisms, i.e.: alolo (immediately) found in the language of Cortina and Comelico. Finally, the town of Sappada (dial.: Plodn) is a German island, an ancient Bavarian dialect, very similar Friulian German island Sauris (dial.: Zahre).
Claims historical, political and ethnic exist only in the so-called historic Dolomitic Ladino language or ex-Habsburg, divided between the provinces of Bolzano (Val Gardena, Val Badia and some fraction of Castelrotto) and Belluno (town of Cortina D'Ampezzo, Colle Santa Lucia and livinallongo del Col di Lana). Beyond the fact that these areas have few cultural and linguistic characteristics in common (are areas Ladino Tyrolean except Cortina d'Ampezzo that it is Cadore-Ladino, but excluded Rocca Pietore which belongs to the group Ladino-Tyrolean) except the Habsburg They are the only ones to make historical, political and ethnic claims. All the other Areas define themselves as Ladin only in a linguistic and cultural way. All Ladin municipalities are protected by law 482/99, which has finally given voice to many Ladin parts (i.e. the Cadore, Agordo and the Zoldo in the province of Belluno), until now not protected by point of view of alpine culture and language.